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Fire Service History
History of the Dalmatian
Feb 01, 2008

History of the Dalmatian

 

The Dalmatian is believed to have its origin in a coastal province of the Austrian Empire called Dalmatia, known today as Croatia, around 1300 A.D.  It was from this area that the breed received its name.  The Dalmatian’s spotted legacy is recorded in ancient Italian and Egyptian art.  It was in the ancient Egyptian art that the spotted dog was depicted accompanying chariots.

Dalmatians were imported into England in the 18th century, where they became very well liked and known.  Through the years the Dalmatian has served many duties.  They have been used as draft, shepherd, and hunting dogs by farmers and in wartime as sentinel and attack dogs.  However, the most popular use was as a coach dog.  The aristocratic lords of England naturally adopted their distinctive and dignified appearance.  Many coaches had one or more Dalmatians in attendance.  The dogs would ride next to the coachman or trot under the front or rear axle or between the horses.  Their natural stamina, speed and agility made them ideal companion to the horses and coach.  Their protective instincts were a great asset to the coach's occupants, especially while traveling in the less desirable areas of the country.

During the period of horse drawn fire apparatus the Dalmatian’s duties and loyalty insured them a place in the fire service history.  The Dalmatian served multiple rolls in the fire service.  At the station they would root out the rats, protect the men, horses and equipment from vandals, vagrants and thieves, and be a loyal companion to men and horse.  On fire calls they would run with the horse teams to ward off people and dogs from their path.  Once on the scene the Dalmatians role was that of guard dog and would keep the horses calm and ward off any unwanted dogs and insure that nothing was stolen from the apparatus.

 

Today the Dalmatian is considered the firefighters’ companion and the traditional mascot of the fire service.  Dalmatians can be found in firehouses around the world, continuing to serve as a guard dog and companion to the firefighters and equipment that adopted them centuries before.  Their aristocratic good looks, low maintenance, high energy, unrelenting loyalty and bravery suite them well for the fire service.  Dalmatians can still be seen riding fire apparatus as they respond to fire calls.

 

 

 


History of the IAFF
Feb 01, 2008

 

International Association of Fire Fighters
History

Paid fire fighters began organizing themselves into clubs and associations in the mid-19th century. Many of these groups were organized for the assistance of fire fighters who were injured on the job or for the families of fire fighters who died in the line of duty.

By the beginning of the 20th Century, professional fire fighters were beginning to organize themselves into local unions. The first of these unions to be chartered by the American Federation of Labor was the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, union which still holds the designation of IAFF LOCAL 1.

By the end of 1916, there were 17 AFL-chartered local fire fighters unions in the United States and one in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The World War I surge in unionism was eagerly joined by professional fire fighters. More than 40 local unions were chartered by the AFL in 1917, and interest grew in establishing an international union. The following year 24 local unions attended a charter conventions held in Baltimore, Maryland.

The Conventions deliberations resulted in the founding of the International Association of Fire Fighters on Feb. 28, 1918, and its chartering by the AFL. The original IAFF constitution established the union along organizational lines that are continued to the present day, advised against strikes, and laid out a set of objectives essentially similar to those cited in the preamble to the present IAFF Constitution.

The convention also founded the IAFF publication, The Fire Fighter, and established and enduring precedent of active participation in legislative affairs.

Delegates to the 1918 Convention took time off from their deliberations to visit their congressmen to urge them to enact a "two-platoon system" for the fire fighters of Washington, DC They also formed a legislative committee on the IAFF Executive Board. Advocacy of the two-platoon system was a primary issue for fire fighters of the day. In 1918, only 34 American cities maintained two shifts of fire fighters, with one on duty while the other was off. The common practice was "continuous duty", requiring fire fighters to live constantly in the fire house, except for meals and an occasional day off.

At the time the IAFF was founded with 5,400 members, the average salary of a top-grade fire fighter was $1,346 a year. In addition, few fire fighters were protected by civil service laws and almost all pay, promotions, and other benefits came and went at the whim of local politicians.

Other enduring goals of the IAFF also appeared early in its history. The 1919 convention endorsed the eight-hour work day, called for universal health insurance, and urged "its speedy enactment with provision for adequate medical and financial benefits, free choice of physician, active preventive work, and democratic management." That same year, Boston police went out on strike and public outrage over the strike in the Untied States had a disastrous effect on most public employee unions, including the IAFF. In the wake of the strike, many public employees were forbidden to belong to unions and many city governments required IAFF locals to give up their charters in return for pay raises. At the same time in Canada, public sentiment was in sharp contrasts to that displayed in the Untied States with the Canadian public generally supportive of the plight of fire fighters and their right to unionize.

The IAFF, which had reported almost 25,000 members in a August 1919, saw a loss of 5,000 members over the next year. In 1923, the IAFF worked aggressively to encourage the enactment of civil service laws to remove the fire service from politics. Although membership was down to about 17,000, the IAFF's civil service reform demands were beginning to show results. The first major victories were in Canada, where provincial laws governing fire services were enacted to protect fire fighters from politics.

By 1926, membership was beginning to edge upward again and the public support for fire fighter issues was increasing. At the IAFF's convention that year, members of the Portland, Oregon local proudly reported winning a salary increase after an unprecedented campaign for public support in which they distributed 100,000 pamphlets, 80,000 letters and 70,000 flyers, advertised in movie theaters, and fulfilled more than 40 speaking engagements.

That same year, the convention turned its attention to professional education for the first time, hearing a speaker from the U.S. Bureau of Chemistry discuss the hazards of dust explosions and how to fight them. Although the effects of the Boston police strike lingered and the IAFF in 1930 adopted a "no strike" provision in its Constitution- the membership and influence of the IAFF continued to grow "Continuous service" was largely a thing of the past. With the IAFF president and vice presidents serving as organizers, local unions were chartered by the dozens. The effect of the Great Depression, with its manpower cutbacks and pay-less paydays, further fostered fire fighter unionism.

The IAFF and its affiliates continued fighting for descent wages and working conditions, although prospects for more pay and shorter hours were hampered by the Great Depression if the 1930s. During the Depression years, when millions of citizens were unemployed, IAFF members in many cities assisted private relief agencies by organizing "Sunshine Divisions" for the distribution of clothes and commodities to those in need. The charitable activities of IAFF members during this period set a precedent that lives on - and to this day, IAFF members still donate their services to assist the public in charitable and community endeavors.

By 1939, the IAFF could celebrate the spread of civil service laws, significant shortening of hours of work, and growing salaries for fire fighters. That year also marked the IAFF's first efforts involving occupational safety and health when the IAFF engaged its first "medical advisor" to carry on research into the physical effects of fire fighting with special attention to heart disease. IAFF membership, which reached 23,000 in 1932, increased to about 45,000 in 1940 as the IAFF got involved in the new civil defense activities being inaugurated in the Untied States and Canada.

The 1940s saw major advances in membership and effectiveness, even as the union coped with wartime and postwar problems. The year 1944 saw the first eight federal locals chartered and the growth of state associations to 33, most of which maintained legislative representatives to promote issues affecting fire fighters in the state legislatures. Although a World War II wage freeze largely stymied efforts to counter wartime inflation, the 48-hour week became widespread in the fire service and, in 1948, the IAFF chartered its 1000th local union.

With the largest cities paying an average of $3,500-a-year to fire fighters, the 1950 IAFF convention set as the union's objectives a base salary of $5,000,a 40-hour workweek, retirement at half-pay after 20 years of service, $1,200 minimum annual benefits for widows, and three-quarters pay for fire fighters disabled in the line of duty.

The IAFF entered the 1950s with a membership of more than 72,000 and a rising awareness among fire fighters that pay increases were not matching the ravages of inflation. In 1955, when the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations untied to form the AFL-CIO, the IAFF remained an active affiliate of the newly constituted and larger House of Labor in the Untied States and its counterpart in Canada, the Canadian Labour Congress. The IAFF turned its
attention to strengthening the bargaining process by advocating the passage of compulsory arbitration laws. In the 1950s, the IAFF also began a decades-long and largely successful effort to keep fire fighters' pensions from being absorbed into the social security system. Meanwhile, the IAFF's membership continued to climb, boosted by an upsurge of interest in unionism among federally-employed fire fighters in the Untied States and Canada. The 1956 convention noted with satisfaction that 85 per cent of all eligible professional fire fighters belonged to the IAFF. A growing concern of fire fighters in that period was occupational health and safety and the IAFF began a concerted effort to seek legislation recognizing and providing protection against occupational hazards. In 1958, the John P. Redmond Memorial Fund for Research of Occupational Diseases of Fire Fighters, named for a former IAFF president who died during attendance at an AFL-CIO convention, was founded. Its first activities included establishment of a medical library to assist locals in the presentation of disability and pension cases. The late 1950s saw many U. S. Locals winning referendum campaigns for higher wages and better working conditions. Canadian locals by now generally worked under written contracts required by provincial law. The IAFF established a research department to compile statistics on fire fighter working conditions and other data for use in local bargaining. Meanwhile another threat appeared. The IAFF had to turn its attention to municipal attempts to merge fire and police departments, with generally disruptive effects on fire services. It was an issue that would remain a top priority for decades.

The 1960s saw a major expansion of IAFF membership services. In 1960, the International began producing and distributing printed materials for its affiliates in support of bargaining, negotiating, public relations, and local union administration. Two years later, the IAFF established a public relations program, followed in 1963 by a program of educational seminars. That same year, the union began mailing issues of the Fire Fighter directly to all IAFF members. The magazine had previously been distributed by local unions. Also in 1963, Canadian IAFF members gained important rights when all Canadian provinces began requiring binding arbitration of bargaining disputes.

More and more states began passing binding arbitration laws by the mid-1960s under prodding from IAFF affiliates, and to this day the IAFF is still working for enactment of a federal law to guarantee collective bargaining rights for all state and municipal fire fighters.

The 50th Anniversary of the IAFF in 1968 came at a time of considerable turmoil in fire service affairs. The convention that year removed the "no strike" clause from the IAFF Constitution. Convention delegates were reflecting widespread dissatisfaction with employers' responses to demands for better pay and working conditions, fire fighter casualties resulting from civil disorder in large cities, and governmental foot-dragging on occupational health hazard problems.

To intensify its efforts on these and other issues, the IAFF that year also established an international legislative representative position, a vice-president representing fire fighters in the federal sector, and a full-time Canadian representative. A committee, established to deal with issues of harassment of fire fighters during the performance of their duties, began a campaign for protective equipment and other measures, but also firmly closed the door on any proposals that fire fighters carry firearms.

The year also saw a major legislative victory for the IAFF. President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the federal Fire Research Act, which for the first time focused national attention on fire safety problems and led to the establishment of the National Fire Academy. The IAFF had been a major proponent of the law and its provisions.

In the following years, the IAFF steadily increased its membership services and influence. By the late 1980s, the modern IAFF could point to impressive and growing list of accomplishments on behalf of the professional fire fighters of the Untied States and Canada.

Among the more recent accomplishments are fostering enactment of a national death benefit for fire fighters killed in the line of duty, an increasing number of state "right to know" laws in the health and safety area, the establishment of sophisticated, computerized research and analysis programs to assist affiliates in bargaining and other union activities, protection of pension systems from assault by a host of attackers, significant public acceptance of professionalism of the fire service, and a growing awareness of the authority with which professional fire fighters address community fire safety needs.

With the 1990s, and the era of tighter municipal budgets, several new challenges have faced the IAFF and its membership. State and local governments have attempted to raid the hard-earned pension funds of fire fighters and other public employees in effort to balance annual budgets. The IAFF and its affiliates have fought back to protect public employee pensions. Increasingly, unit and departmental staffing have come under attack over the past decade, with many communities fielding engine and ladder companies at levels below minimum safe staffing requirements. Also in the 1990s, the provision of fire department-based emergency medical services has emerged as one of the keys to the future of the fire service. With improvements in emergency medicine and technology have come an increased demand for EMS. Beginning in the 1980s, more and more locals began turn to cross-training of fire fighters, paramedics and/or emergency medical technicians to take advantage of the growing opportunities presented by EMS.

But the potential profits from providing EMS has drawn the attention of many large corporations which are fighting to privatize many municipal services. The IAFF has been involved in a city-by-city battle over EMS. At the same time, even as safety improvements spearheaded by the IAFF made many aspects of the fire fighters' job less dangerous, a variety of new occupational hazards appeared including that of chemicals, hazardous materials, and infectious diseases. The IAFF moved to the forefront of these areas, developing an extensive Hazardous Materials training program for fire and emergency personnel and winning a lengthy legislative battle in Washington to enact an infectious disease notification law for fire fighters.

1901 – The AFL charters the first Union of Fire Fighters in Washington D.C.

1903 – Pittsburgh fire fighters organize and affiliate themselves with the AFL, becoming Local #1 of the IAFF in 1918.

1917 – Firefighters in Vancouver B.C. become the first in Canada to form a firefighters union.

1917 – A motion is passed at the AFL convention in Buffalo, N.Y. authorizing the president of the AFL to form an international Union of Fire Fighters chartered under the AFL.

1918 – The average firefighter earns 29 cents an hour and works either a continuous duty system or 84 hours per week.

1918 – The first IAFF Convention is held in Washington D.C. on February 28th with 36 firefighter delegates. 5,400 fire fighters become the first members of the new IAFF.

1921 – IAFF membership grows to over 20,000 members.

1938 – The first article in a series on heart disease among firefighters is published in The International Fire Fighter.

1939 – The IAFF assists locals in Pennsylvania to pass the first Heart and Lung Act, Worker’s Compensation Act, and the Occupational Disease Law establishing the first presumptive heart and lung legislation.

1939 – U.S. Congress repeals laws prohibiting the Washington D.C. Fire Department from being affiliated with the IAFF.

1943 – The average firefighter earns 50 cents an hour and works 70 hours per week.

1948 – The IAFF charters its 1,000th local union.

1954 – The IAFF adopts muscular dystrophy as it particular charitable endeavor.

1958 – The IAFF established the John P. Redmond Foundation for the health and safety of firefighters.

1962 – President Kennedy’s Executive Order 10988 brings new recognition to the IAFF’s Federal Fire Fighters.

1963 – Canadian IAFF members gain important rights when all Canadian provinces begin requiring binding arbitration of bargaining disputes.

1966 – The IAFF begins the Harvard University Trade Union Program Scholarship and sends its first IAFF member to Harvard to explore key issues of the labor movement.

1968 – The IAFF officially opens its Canadian Office in Ottawa, Ontario to serve as the central clearing-house for member services and information in Canada.

1968 – The average firefighter earns over $2.00 an hour and works 56 hours per week.

1968 – President Johnson signs the National Fire Research and Safety Act into law, authorizing for the first time in IAFF history a fire research and safety program which the federal government will largely frame.

1970 – Ground breaking for the new International Headquarters building takes place three blocks from the White House in Washington D.C.

1970 – IAFF President McClennan is made co-chairman of the National Commission on Fire Prevention by President Nixon.

1970 – The IAFF charters its 2000th local.

1971 – The IAFF conducts its first Redmond Symposium on the health hazards of the fire service.

1976 – The IAFF is instrumental in extending coverage of the FLSA to include firefighters after presenting key testimony to Congress.

1976 – At the urging of the IAFF, President Ford signs the Public Safety Officer Benefit Act (PSOB), providing federal money to the families of four firefighters killed in the line of duty.

1982 – The IAFF is instrumental in the developmental work that resulted in the standard on Personal Alert Safety Systems (PASS).

1984 – At the urging of the IAFF, federal firefighters are now covered under PSOB.

1986 – The IAFF is instrumental in establishing the first edition of NFPA 1500, Standard of Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Programs.

1986 – President Reagan signs the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act establishing first responder and advanced Hazmat training. The IAFF receives federal funds to begin a training program for firefighters.

1986 – The IAFF established the Occupational Medicine Residency Program with Johns Hopkins University.

1987 – The IAFF established its Hazmat Training Program with a grant from the federal government.

1988 – The IAFF is reorganized to provide expansion of its services through the following departments: Research & Labor Issues, Governmental Affairs & Political Action, Public Relations & Communications, Education, Occupational Health & Safety, Hazardous Materials, In-House Legal Counsel, Special Events, and the Canadian Office.

1990 – The IAFF conducts its first Regional Seminar as part of a new Educational Seminar Program.

1991 – The IAFF holds its first EMS Conference to promote fire-based EMS.

1992 – The IAFF is instrumental in getting OSHA to pass 29 CFR1910.1030-                Bloodborne Pathogens Regulation.

1992 – The average firefighter earns over $13.00 an hour and works 50 hours per week.

1994 – After assisting in getting the Ryan White Act passed 1990, the IAFF is instrumental in establishing the Ryan White infectious disease notification for firefighters implemented by the Centers for Disease Control.

1996 – The IAFF continues its push for fire-based EMS integration with the creation of a new EMS Department.

1996 – The IAFF launches an internet web site at www.iaff.org.

1996 – The IAFF is instrumental in obtaining a permanent exemption for firefighters from the ADEA.

1997 – IAFF and IAFC join together for the Joint Labor Management Wellness/Fitness Initiative.

1997 – IAFF and NIOSH develop Line- of-Duty Death Investigation Programs. President Clinton includes $2.5 million to begin the federal investigation program for firefighters.

        1998 – The IAFF is instrumental in getting OSHA to update 29 CFR1910.134-Respiratory Protection Regulation, including 2 in/2 out provisions for firefighting in an immediately dangerous to life and health atmosphere

 

 

 


History of the Maltese Cross
Feb 01, 2008

History of the Maltese Cross

The Maltese cross is known around the world as a symbol of the fire service. It is often seen painted on fire trucks, on the clothing of firefighters, depicted on firefighters badges, and is quite often the chosen design of firefighter tattoos. So where did the Maltese cross come from, and how did it get to be known as a symbol of the fire service?

 

The Badge of a Fire Fighter is the Maltese Cross. The Maltese Cross is a symbol of protection and a badge of honor. Its story is hundreds of years old.

 

When a courageous band of crusaders known as Knights of St. John fought the Saracens for possession of the holy land, they encountered a new weapon unknown to European warriors. It was a simple, but horrible device of war. It wrought excruciating pain and agonizing death upon the brave fighters for the cross. The Saracens weapon was fire.

As the crusaders advanced on the walls of the city, they were struck by glass bombs containing naphtha. When they became saturated with the highly flammable liquid, the Saracens hurled a flaming torch into their midst. Hundreds of the knights were burned alive; others risked their lives to save their brothers-in-arms from dying painful, fiery deaths.

 

Thus, these men became our first Fire Fighters and the first of a long list of courageous Fire Fighters. Their heroic efforts were recognized by fellow crusaders who awarded each hero a badge of honor-a cross similar to the one fire fighters wear today. Since the Knights of St. John lived for close to four centuries on a little island in the Mediterranean Sea named Malta, the cross came to be known as the Maltese Cross.

 

The Maltese Cross is your symbol of protection. It means that the Fire Fighter who wears this cross is willing to lay down his life for you just as the crusaders sacrificed their lives for their fellow man so many years ago. The Maltese Cross is a Fire Fighter's badge of honor, signifying that he works in courage...a ladder rung away from death.

 

 

   

 

 


St. Florian Patron Saint of Firefighters
Feb 01, 2008

Saint Florian Patron Saint

Of Fire Fighters

 

All firefighters are aware that Saint Florian is the patron Saint of firefighters. Many have purchased and are very proud to wear the Saint Florian medallion around their neck. These medallions are usually gold and many are shaped in the form of a Maltese cross with the image of Florian stamped in the center of it. If you ask who Florian was or why he is our Patron Saint, most firefighters don't know. They assume it is because he made some heroic fire rescue or maybe he was a priest who was involved in the fire service. These answers are the typical response but neither is accurate.

Florian was a Captain in the Roman army. He was a brave soldier and a tenacious fighter. Rome recognized the danger of fire and was the first to employ a fire department. This first fire department was made up of slaves. They had no real desire to risk their lives battling the flames of their captors. Rome desperately needed fire protection. They called on Captain Florian to organize and train an elite group of soldiers whose sole duty was to fight fires. Captain Florian indeed organized such a group. They were highly trained and very successful at protecting Rome from fires. A brigade of firefighters followed the army and provided fire protection at their encampments. These firefighters were highly respected and easily recognized. They wore the traditional Roman soldier uniform except the skirt was green. The most famous picture of Saint Florian depicts him with a young boy pouring water from a pitcher onto a fire. This picture if seen in color reveals this green skirt.

Rome was very impressed by this young Captain and all that he had accomplished. They decided to reward him by making him a general. Generals were often given large tracks of conquered land to govern. The only rules were that they had to enforce the laws of Rome and collect the taxes. Florian's area included almost all of Poland.

Rome began to hear some rumors about the way Florian was governing his land. It was reported that he was not enforcing Rome's law forbidding Christianity. Rome did not believe this, but they did sent investigators to check. They reported back that it was true. Rome sent a group of soldiers to confront Florian. They warned and threatened him that he must enforce the laws of Rome and abolish Christianity. Florian not only refused he confessed that he had embraced the faith and become a Christian himself. Rome was furious. They tortured him and demanded he renounce his faith. Florian steadfastly refused. Rome ordered his execution.

Florian was to be burned at the stake. Soldiers marched him out and secured him to the post. Villagers gathered around to witness the execution. Florian begged his executioners to build the fire higher. He implored them to light the fire so his soul would rise up to heaven on the smoke from the blaze. The soldiers had never seen this kind of reaction from a person about to be burned alive. They were frightened. What if his soul did rise up, right in from of all the villagers? They could not afford a martyr. The fire was not lit. Florian was taken away by the soldiers who decided to drown him. He was placed in a boat and rowed out into the river. A millstone was tied around his neck and he was pushed over board and drowned.
After his death, people who were trapped by fire reported that they invoked Florians name and his spirit delivered them from the flames. These occurrences were reported and documented many times. Florian was confirmed a saint for his commitment to his faith and the documentation of his spirit delivering trapped persons from the flames.

It is only fitting, that firefighters, committed to their duty, and instilled with the spirit to dedicate themselves to the protection of life and property, should choose such a man as their patron saint.




Page Last Updated: Feb 01, 2008 (11:30:00)
 
 
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